PARADIGMA de Gen - Cadrul general

 

Concept
 
The movement towards gender equality, especially in Western countries, began with the suffragette movement of the late-19th century. Then there was a change in relation to women's property rights in marriage. (See for example, Married Women's Property Act 1882.) In the 1960s, a more general movement for gender equality developed based on women's liberation and feminism. The issue was women's rights. The idea was that women should have equal rights with men. However, actual changes in attitudes continued to focus on specific issues.
The movement resulted in anti-discrimination laws. Changes to attitudes to equality in education opportunities for boys and girls has also undergone a cultural shift. Some changes came about by adopting affirmative action policies. The change has also involved changes to social views, including "equal pay for equal work" as well as most occupations being equally available to men and women, in many countries. For example, many countries now permit women to serve in the armed forces, the police force and to be fire fighters. Also, an increasing number of women are active in politics and occupy high positions in business.
Conversely, men increasingly are working in occupations which in previous generations had been considered "female occupations", such as nursing. Also, in the home, while acknowledging the biological differences between men and women, most notably in relation to child bearing, the role of child rearing is not as widely considered to be an exclusively female role. Another manifestation of the change in social attitudes is the non-automatic taking by a woman of her husband's surname on marriage, as well as a wife being free to pursue her career after marriage.
Many people, feminist and not, still do not regard the objective of gender equality as having been achieved, especially in non-Western countries. A highly contentious issue relating to gender equality is the role of women in Christian churches, and female priests. The issue has caused splits in some churches.
Not all ideas for gender equality have been popularly adopted. For example, the movement for topfreedom rights has remained a marginal issue, though breast feeding rights in semi-public places have been accepted.
 
Efforts to fight inequality
 
World bodies have defined gender equality in terms of human rights, especially women's rights, and economic development.UNICEF describes that gender equality "means that women and men, and girls and boys, enjoy the same rights, resources, opportunities and protections. It does not require that girls and boys, or women and men, be the same, or that they be treated exactly alike."
The United Nations Population Fund has declared that women have a right to equality. "Gender equity" is one of the goals of the United Nations Millennium Project, to end world poverty by 2015; the project claims, "Every single Goal is directly related to women's rights, and societies where women are not afforded equal rights as men can never achieve development in a sustainable manner."
Thus, promoting gender equality is seen as an encouragement to greater economic prosperity.For example, nations of the Arab world that deny equality of opportunity to women were warned in a 2008 United Nations-sponsored report that this disempowerment is a critical factor crippling these nations' return to the first rank of global leaders in commerce, learning and culture.
In 2010, the European Union opened the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) in Vilnius, Lithuania to promote gender equality and to fight sex discrimination.
GLOSSARY
  • Bariere invizibile - Atitudini bazate pe prejudecăţi, norme şi valori tradiţionale care împiedică responsabilitatea / deplina participare a femeilor în societate.
  • Aducerea dovezii - În domeniul egalităţii de tratament între femei şi bărbaţi, o directivă bazată pe jurisprudenţa Curţii de Justiţie a Comunităţii Europene prevede transferul de obligaţii de probatoriu între cele două părţi( reclamant şi acuzat). Dacă o persoană se consideră nedreptăţită prin ne aplicarea principiului egalităţii de tratament şi dacă există o prezumţie de discriminare, acuzatul trebuie să dovedească faptul că acest principiu nu a fost încălcat.
  • Capacitatea femeilor - Se realizează la nivel individual, printr-o cunoaştere de sine şi asumare a propriei persoane, la nivel de grup, prin afirmarea unei identităţi colective şi a unor acţiuni consecvente în scopul obţinerii controlului relaţiilor de putere în societate.
  • Abordarea integratore a principiului egalităţii de gen - Integrarea sistematică a unor condiţii, priorităţi şi nevoi specifice femeilor şi bărbaţilor în toate politicile, în vederea promovării egalităţii între femei şi bărbaţi, mobilizarea politicilor şi măsurilor generale avînd drept scop realizarea egalităţii, prin luarea în consideraţie, în etapa planificării, intr-un mod activ şi deschis, a efectelor acestor politici asupra situaţiei specifice femeilor şi bărbaţilor, în implementarea, monitorizare şi evaluare.
  • Analiză de gen - Studiul diferenţelor de condiţii, al nevoilor, al ratelor de participare, al accesului la resurse şi la dezvoltare, controlului asupra bunurilor, al puterii de decizie şi al imaginii între femei şi bărbaţi, în funcţie de rolurile desemnate de gen.
Gender Statistics
  • Violenţa domestică / în familie - Orice formă de violenţă fizică, psihologică sau sexuală, care pune în pericol siguranţa şi bunăstarea unui membru al familiei şi / sau recurgerea la forţa fizică ori emoţională, inclusiv violenţa sexuală, în cadrul familiei sau gospodăriei. Această noţiune include abuzul copilului, incestul, maltratarea soţiei şi orice abuz sexual sau de altă natură faţă de oricare membru al gospodăriei.
  • Violenţa sexuală - Orice formă de violenţă prin folosirea sau ameninţarea cu folosirea forţei fizice sau emoţionale, incluzînd violul, maltratarea soţiei, hărţuirea sexuală, incestul şi pedofilia.
  • Trafic de carne vie - Trafic de fiinţe umane, în special de femei şi de copii, în scopul exploatării sexuale, obţinerii de mînă de lucru sau de sclavie
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