CPD Publications

Survey "Women and Men Participation in Decision Making Process"

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The study "Women and Men Participation in Decision Making Process" was released for the first time in Moldova, by the Centre for Partnership and Development (CPD) at the launch of "Transparency Week".
 
Therefore, the survey  highlighted gender gaps in several aspects such as attitude, priorities, participation, elections, transparency.

Attitudes

Public perceptions regarding women’s presence in decision-making circles at any level are "male-centered". About two-thirds of respondents declare themselves supporters of the idea that gender is equally important within the decision-making representation. At the same time, is alarming the number of those supporting male decision-making positions” (25% -29%).

The distorted acceptance of men in higher level decision-making positions is maintained. Consequently, women are more accepted and even preferred at lower level decision-making positions (Chairman of the parent association - 23.5% of acceptances, director of school - 15.9%). But once the importance of the position increases, the degree of preference of a woman for the job decreases (e.g. only 4, 0% of respondents would prefer a woman running for president, while 41, 1% would prefer a man).

Priorities

The priority issues to be developed in the perception of respondents are local infrastructure (roads and bridges, water and sanitation) and social assistance. Priorities seen by women do not differ substantially from those seen by men. However, some differences are sufficiently pronounced, showing that women are more concerned with social infrastructure and social services (43.6% of women to 35.7% among men), educational infrastructure (31.6% to 24.6% respectively) and health services / institutions (28.6% and 23.6%).

Participation

 In the case of de facto participation in decision-making process at community level, the "male-centered" formula appears again. More than a half (56.3%) of respondents has the perception that decisions are made by men and women alike. On the other hand, 28.1% said that largely it is men who make the decisions and only 3.3% of respondents believe that women primarily make decisions regarding the development and renovation of the village.

Decision-makers at the community and national level in Moldova is far from being considered a collective one. Thus, a very small number of people participate in decision making process. For example, only 0.8% of respondents are part of (members) a local initiative group and 4.4% are active participants in decision-making bodies. However, , a higher percentage, 2.0% of respondents, are members  of a political party. But even here participation is very low: 2.8% are not party members, despite being active in them. Thus, only 4.8% of citizens participate in the life and activity of political parties either as member or as supporter.

From the gender perspective, discrepancies at every level and type of decision-making group (local public authorities (LPAs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), political parties and initiative groups) are detrimental to women.

Transparency

The activity of formal local government remains unknown, with the awareness of citizens about their activity being very low. Only one in five respondents declared to be informed, but were informed at different levels about how decisions are made in their municipality or village council. There were minimal differences according to the gender of the respondent. We note here that the low level of information is not determined (at least exclusively) by the non-transparency of local government, but also by the lack of participation and political culture of the population as a whole. While on the other hand, respondents state that citizens know their rights regarding information about LPA’s activity and participation in their actions. At the same time, the majority (over two thirds) of respondents are informed about their right to attend local council meetings, about LPA’s obligation to notify the schedule of these meetings, and that citizens are entitled to request information about LPA’s decisions.

Elections

3.5% of respondents said that they plan to run for local elections as a mayor candidate, 7.3% as local councilor and 4.4% as district councilor. Gender gaps widened in local elections over time. Women were twice less likely to  declare their intention to participate in elections at local or district level than men.

Social Environment is one of the barriers that restrict women's electoral participation at a level comparable to men. Women are rarely encouraged to participate in politics or run for office.

Distrust in personal traits (21.6% women to 18.6% men believe that they do not have a suitable character), higher degree demand of women in private life (14.5% women interviewed stated lack of intent is due to the need to take care of children and family, compared to only 7.0% men) and fear (12.1% women vs. 7.8% men) are the reasons - specific more to women than to men – of withdrawing or not intending to run in local elections.

 

This report is an independent study conducted by the Centre for Sociological and Marketing Research "CBS-AXA" from Chisinau commissioned by Center Partnership for Development, with financial support from the Soros Foundation-Moldova and the Government of Sweden. The analysis and findings of this report, interpretations and conclusions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Soros Foundation-Moldova.


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Election Quotas in Moldova Causes, Myths and Options for Implementation

The Paper Policy on "Election Quotas in Moldova" is a study regarding the political representation of both women and men in Moldova. The study reflects practices within OSCE member countries and their adaptation to Moldova's reality.
GLOSSARY
  • Capacitatea femeilor - Se realizează la nivel individual, printr-o cunoaştere de sine şi asumare a propriei persoane, la nivel de grup, prin afirmarea unei identităţi colective şi a unor acţiuni consecvente în scopul obţinerii controlului relaţiilor de putere în societate.
  • Analiză de gen - Studiul diferenţelor de condiţii, al nevoilor, al ratelor de participare, al accesului la resurse şi la dezvoltare, controlului asupra bunurilor, al puterii de decizie şi al imaginii între femei şi bărbaţi, în funcţie de rolurile desemnate de gen.
  • Bariere invizibile - Atitudini bazate pe prejudecăţi, norme şi valori tradiţionale care împiedică responsabilitatea / deplina participare a femeilor în societate.
  • Abordarea integratore a principiului egalităţii de gen - Integrarea sistematică a unor condiţii, priorităţi şi nevoi specifice femeilor şi bărbaţilor în toate politicile, în vederea promovării egalităţii între femei şi bărbaţi, mobilizarea politicilor şi măsurilor generale avînd drept scop realizarea egalităţii, prin luarea în consideraţie, în etapa planificării, intr-un mod activ şi deschis, a efectelor acestor politici asupra situaţiei specifice femeilor şi bărbaţilor, în implementarea, monitorizare şi evaluare.
  • Aducerea dovezii - În domeniul egalităţii de tratament între femei şi bărbaţi, o directivă bazată pe jurisprudenţa Curţii de Justiţie a Comunităţii Europene prevede transferul de obligaţii de probatoriu între cele două părţi( reclamant şi acuzat). Dacă o persoană se consideră nedreptăţită prin ne aplicarea principiului egalităţii de tratament şi dacă există o prezumţie de discriminare, acuzatul trebuie să dovedească faptul că acest principiu nu a fost încălcat.
Gender Statistics
  • Trafic de carne vie - Trafic de fiinţe umane, în special de femei şi de copii, în scopul exploatării sexuale, obţinerii de mînă de lucru sau de sclavie
  • Violenţa sexuală - Orice formă de violenţă prin folosirea sau ameninţarea cu folosirea forţei fizice sau emoţionale, incluzînd violul, maltratarea soţiei, hărţuirea sexuală, incestul şi pedofilia.
  • Violenţa domestică / în familie - Orice formă de violenţă fizică, psihologică sau sexuală, care pune în pericol siguranţa şi bunăstarea unui membru al familiei şi / sau recurgerea la forţa fizică ori emoţională, inclusiv violenţa sexuală, în cadrul familiei sau gospodăriei. Această noţiune include abuzul copilului, incestul, maltratarea soţiei şi orice abuz sexual sau de altă natură faţă de oricare membru al gospodăriei.
Progen in images
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